以下資料來源為美國好事達基金會(The Allstate Foundation)網站。
所謂SEL 架構，也被稱為「CASEL 輪」，建立促進學生學習及發展的支持性環境，並培養相關技能。
學校、學區、州和其他機構可以使用 CASEL 的架構：
該架構滿足了不同地區的優勢、需求和文化，可以應用於不同的優先事項，為社區使用實證基礎的 SEL 策略以提供當地最有意義之幫助奠定了基礎。
- 詳細了解2020最新版架構，其中強調 SEL 在促進教育平等和追求卓越的潛力。
社交和情感學習 (SEL) 為教育和人類發展不可或缺的一部分。
SEL 透過真實的學校-家庭-社區夥伴關係促進教育公平和卓越，建立以信任和協作關係、嚴謹而有意義的課程和指導、持續評估為特徵的學習環境和體驗。 SEL 幫助解決各種形式的不平等問題，使年輕人和成年人共同創建蓬勃發展的學校，並為安全、健康和公正的社區做出貢獻。
CASEL 5 涉及五個廣泛且互相關聯的能力領域，並重點介紹每個領域的示例：自我覺察、自我管理、社會覺察、人際關係技巧和負責任的決策。 CASEL 5 可以在各個發展階段(從童年到成年)以及各個不同的文化背景進行教授和應用。許多學區、州和國家都使用 CASEL 5 來建立學前到高中階段的學習標準和能力，而這些標準闡明了學生在學業成功、學校和公民參與、健康以及職業生涯中應該知道並且能夠從事的事。
SEL 的發展觀點著重於社交和情感能力如何在各年齡階段獲得充分表達及適當的增強。SEL 的標準、教學、評估的訂定應考量學生的社交、情感、認知發展程度，以及按照年齡所設計的任務。因此，利益相關者有責任決定確立優先次序、教學和評估 CASEL 5 在學校和社區之成長發展的方法。
我們採取系統性方法，強調在課堂、學校、家庭和社區的關鍵環境中建立公平學習環境及協調實踐的重要性，以增強學生的社交、情感和學術學習。SEL 要成功，需要一個設計完善，以證據為基礎的課堂計劃和實務學習。我們認為最有利的方式是將 SEL 整合到學校的學術課程、文化，並融合跨校實習，維持和家庭及社區組織間的合作。這樣相互的合作模式能強化青年的發言權、能動性和參與度；建立支持性的課堂和學校氛圍以及紀律處分；增強成人 SEL 能力；並建立家庭和社區間真實的夥伴關係。
家人及照顧者。學校和家庭之間真實的合夥關係能鞏固學生在社交和情感上發展的穩定性。由於家人及照顧者是孩子的第一任老師，因此孩子的發展、經歷、文化和學習速度都深受家人及照顧者影響。而這些見解和觀點，又對於教導、支持和維持 SEL 模式至關重要。研究發現，把循證 SEL 計劃擴展到家庭，會得到更好的效果，而當家庭認為學校的規範、價值觀和文化表徵和自身經歷一致時，與學校建立合夥關係的意願就會上升。學校需要的是一個全面的決策過程，盡力確保家庭——尤其是被歷史邊緣化的家庭——一直是SEL規劃、實施和持續改進的努力核心。除此之外，學校還可以透過其他途徑建立家庭合夥關係，像是持續進行雙向溝通，協助照顧者了解兒童發展歷程，幫助教師了解家庭背景和文化，提供家長參與學校志工服務的機會等，把學習活動延伸到家，並協調家庭及社區間的合作關係。這些努力應能達到讓家庭參與學生社交和情感發展的目標。
學校。在校園中有效實施整合 SEL，需要全體成員配合進行持續性的規劃、實施、評估和修正。 SEL一方面仰賴充滿尊重、支持性和參與度的校園氛圍，一方面也有助於此一校園氛圍的形成。由於學校環境包括很多地方: 教室、走廊、自助餐廳、操場、校車等，健康校園校氛圍和文化的養成非常需要所有成人和學生的積極參與。強大的學校文化植根於學生的歸屬感，而學校文化在學生參與度之提升上的重要性也已獲得證實。此外，SEL還提供機會，透過將 SEL 目標及實踐與普遍、有針對性且密集的學術和行為支持相結合，增強現有的學生支持系統。在SEL實踐和計劃的基礎上，學校可以創造把SEL 融入學生學習經驗的環境，促進學生正向社交、情感和學術的發展。
教室。研究顯示，多樣化的課堂活動策略有利於社交和情感能力之提升。相關策略如下： (a) 透過明確的指導，輔以發展、情境和文化回應的教學策略，教授社交和情感相關的技能和態度 (b) 合作與任務導向學習； (c) 整合SEL 與學術課程，例如語言藝術、數學、科學、社會研究、健康和表演藝術等科目。高品質的 SEL 教學有四個要素，由首字母縮略詞 SAFE 表示。S代表順序(Sequence)，強調遵循一套協調的培訓方法，必能促進能力的發展；A為主動(Active)——強調主動的學習形式能幫助學生練習並掌握新技能；F為專注(Focus) ，提倡實施以 SEL 能力發展為焦點之課程；E為明確(Explicit) – 對特定技能、態度和知識下明確的定義。
Our SEL framework, known to many as the “CASEL wheel,” helps cultivate skills and environments that advance students’ learning and development.
Schools, districts, states, and others can use CASEL’s Framework to:
Interactive CASEL Wheel
- Foster knowledge, skills, and attitudes across five areas of social and emotional competence;
- Establish equitable learning environments and coordinate practices across four key settings that support students’ social, emotional, and academic development.Our framework provides a foundation for communities to use evidence-based SEL strategies in ways that are most meaningful to their local context. It can be applied to many different priorities and aligned with each community’s strengths, needs, and cultures.
- Download more information on the framework (available in English and Spanish).
- Use our reflection protocol to facilitate a discussion on implementation efforts in your school, district, or other setting.
- Read more about the 2020 update to our framework, which highlighted the potential of SEL in promoting educational equity and excellence.
Engage with our interactive wheel by selecting a competency or setting to learn more.
Social & Emotional Learning
Social and emotional learning (SEL) is an integral part of education and human development.
SEL is the process through which all young people and adults acquire and apply the knowledge, skills, and attitudes to develop healthy identities, manage emotions and achieve personal and collective goals, feel and show empathy for others, establish and maintain supportive relationships, and make responsible and caring decisions.
SEL advances educational equity and excellence through authentic school-family-community partnerships to establish learning environments and experiences that feature trusting and collaborative relationships, rigorous and meaningful curriculum and instruction, and ongoing evaluation. SEL can help address various forms of inequity and empower young people and adults to co-create thriving schools and contribute to safe, healthy, and just communities.
The CASEL 5
The CASEL 5 addresses five broad and interrelated areas of competence and highlights examples for each: self-awareness, self-management, social awareness, relationship skills, and responsible decision-making. The CASEL 5 can be taught and applied at various developmental stages from childhood to adulthood and across diverse cultural contexts. Many school districts, states, and countries have used the CASEL 5 to establish preschool to high school learning standards and competencies that articulate what students should know and be able to do for academic success, school and civic engagement, health and wellness, and fulfilling careers.
A developmental perspective to SEL considers how the social and emotional competencies can be expressed and enhanced at different ages from preschool through adulthood. Students’ social, emotional, and cognitive developmental levels and age-appropriate tasks and challenges should inform the design of SEL standards, instruction, and assessment. Given that, stakeholders should decide how best to prioritize, teach, and assess the growth and development of the CASEL 5 in their local schools and communities.
Learn more about a developmental perspective.
We take a systemic approach that emphasizes the importance of establishing equitable learning environments and coordinating practices across key settings of classrooms, schools, families, and communities to enhance all students’ social, emotional, and academic learning. Quality implementation of well-designed, evidence-based, classroom programs and practices is a foundational element of effective SEL. We believe it is most beneficial to integrate SEL throughout the school’s academic curricula and culture, across the broader contexts of schoolwide practices and policies, and through ongoing collaboration with families and community organizations. These coordinated efforts should foster youth voice, agency, and engagement; establish supportive classroom and school climates and approaches to discipline; enhance adult SEL competence; and establish authentic family and community partnerships.
Students, families, schools, and communities are all part of broader systems that shape learning, development, and experiences. Inequities based on race, ethnicity, class, language, gender identity, sexual orientation, and other factors are deeply ingrained in the vast majority of these systems and impact student and adult social, emotional, and academic learning. While SEL alone will not solve longstanding and deep-seated inequities in the education system, it can create the conditions needed for individuals and schools to examine and interrupt inequitable policies and practices, create more inclusive learning environments, and reveal and nurture the interests and assets of all individuals.
Community partners often provide safe and developmentally rich settings for learning and development, have deep understanding of community needs and assets, are seen as trusted partners by families and students, and have connections to additional supports and services that school and families need. Community programs also offer opportunities for young people to practice their social and emotional skills in settings that are both personally relevant and can open opportunities for their future. To integrate SEL efforts across the school day and out-of-school time, school staff and community partners should align on common language and coordinate strategies and communication around SEL-related efforts and initiatives.
Families & Caregivers
Families & Caregivers. When schools and families form authentic partnerships, they can build strong connections that reinforce students' social and emotional development. Families and caregivers are children's first teachers, and bring deep expertise about their development, experiences, culture, and learning speeds. These insights and perspectives are critical to informing, supporting, and sustaining SEL efforts. Research suggests that evidence-based SEL programs are more effective when they extend into the home, and families are far more likely to form partnerships with schools when their schools' norms, values, and cultural representations reflect their own experiences. Schools need inclusive decision- making processes that ensure that families--particularly those from historically marginalized groups--are part of planning, implementing, and continuously improving SEL. Schools can also create other avenues for family partnership that may include creating ongoing two-way communication with families, helping caregivers understand child development, helping teachers understand family backgrounds and cultures, providing opportunities for families to volunteer in schools, extending learning activities and discussions into homes, and coordinating family services with community partners. These efforts should engage families in understanding, experiencing, informing, and supporting the social and emotional development of their students.
Schools. Effectively integrating SEL schoolwide involves ongoing planning, implementation, evaluation, and continuous improvement by all members of the school community. SEL efforts both contribute to and depend upon a school climate where all students and adults feel respected, supported, and engaged. Because the school setting includes many contexts-classrooms, hallways, cafeteria, playground, bus-fostering a healthy school climate and culture requires active engagement from all adults and students. A strong school culture is rooted in students' sense of belonging, with evidence that suggests that it plays a crucial role in students' engagement. SEL also offers an opportunity to enhance existing systems of student support by integrating SEL goals and practices with universal, targeted, and intensive academic and behavioral supports. By coordinating and building upon SEL practices and programs, schools can create an environment that infuses SEL into every part of students' educational experience and promotes positive social, emotional, and academic outcomes for all students.
Classrooms. Research has shown that social and emotional competence can be enhanced using a variety of classroom-based approaches such as: (a) explicit instruction through which social and emotional skills and attitudes are taught and practiced in developmentally, contextually, and culturally responsive ways; (b) teaching practices such as cooperative learning and project-based learning; and (c) integration of SEL and academic curriculum such as language arts, math, science, social studies, health, and performing arts. High-quality SEL instruction has four elements represented by the acronym SAFE. Sequenced - following a coordinated set of training approaches to foster the development of competencies; Active - emphasizing active forms of learning to help students practice and master new skills; Focused – implementing curriculum that intentionally emphasizes the development of SEL competencies; and Explicit - defining and targeting specific skills, attitudes, and knowledge.
SEL instruction is carried out most effectively in nurturing, safe environments characterized by positive, caring relationships among students and teachers. To facilitate age-appropriate and culturally responsive instruction, adults must understand and appreciate the unique strengths and needs of each student and support students' identities. When adults incorporate students' personal experiences and cultural backgrounds and seek their input, they create an inclusive classroom environment where students are partners in the educational process, elevating their own agency. Strong relationships between adults and students can facilitate co-learning, foster student and adult growth, and generate collaborative solutions to shared concerns.
- Björklund, K., Liski, A., Samposalo, H., Lindblom, J., Hella, J., Huhtinen, H., Ojala, T., Alasuvanto, P., Koskinen, H.-L., & Kiviruusu, O. (2014). “Together at school”-a school-based intervention program to promote socio-emotional skills and mental health in children: study protocol for a cluster randomized controlled trial. BMC Public Health, 14(1), 1-11.
- The Allstate Foundation. (2022). What Is the CASEL Framework? A framework creates a foundation for applying evidence-based SEL strategies to your community. https://casel.org/fundamentals-of-sel/what-is-the-casel-framework/